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economic valuation

Estimating the economic benefits and costs of highly‐protected marine protected areas

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are gaining popularity to conserve marine biodiversity and to ensure a sustainable use of marine resources. This study elaborates on how to evaluate the economic benefits and costs of MPAs while providing examples and reviewing different economic methods. Key challenges, such as comparing non-market and markets benefits and quantifying the value of non-protected areas versus MPAs, are identified.

North Devon: Ecosystem Services

This factsheet, a product of the partnership of WWF UK and Sky Ocean Rescue (UK SEAS Project), provides answers to the question: "What are the key benefits the marine environment provides to people, and what are the risks and opportunities?" related to North Devon, United Kingdom. This communication tool gives a brief explaination of how the concept of Ecosystem Services and how this applies to the situation in North Devon. The UK SEAS Project developed several other reports and communications tools that can be find via the link below. 

A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years.

Embedding ecosystem services in coastal planning leads to better outcomes for people and nature

Recent calls for ocean planning envision informed management of social and ecological systems to sustain delivery of ecosystem services to people. However, until now, no coastal and marine planning process has applied an ecosystem-services framework to understand how human activities affect the flow of benefits, to create scenarios, and to design a management plan.

Learning to speak Ecosystem Services

This online article explains the 'language' of Ecosystem Services: "The value of ecosystems and the associated services they provide is receiving growing attention both in the public and decision-making arena. The language of Ecosystem Services essentially translates the complexity of ecological processes and functions into descriptors that define the socio-economic-ecological link.

Assessing the Economic Contribution of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Sargasso Sea

This report provides a variety of measures of the Sargasso Sea’s economic value and impact, especially net and gross revenues associated with ecosystem services supported by the sea. Measures of net revenues capture the net benefit of a resource to society. Gross revenues capture important measures of economic activity and impact. Gross revenues support local taxes, income, and jobs.

The benefits to people of expanding Marine Protected Areas

This study focuses on how the economic value of marine ecosystem services to people and communities is expected to change with the expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs). The report makes a clear case that shows that all possible scenarios for ocean expansion are of economical interest. Costs outweigh benefits varying from 3:1 to 20:1, making a clear economic case for global MPA expansion. This document can be used in advocacy for making the econimic case of MPAs either within as beyond areas with national jurisdiction.

Walk on the Wild Side: Estimating the Global Magnitude of Visits to Protected Areas

How often do people visit the world’s protected areas (PAs)? Despite PAs covering one-eighth of the land and being a major focus of nature-based recreation and tourism, we don’t know. To address this, we compiled a globally-representative database of visits to PAs and built region-specific models predicting visit rates from PA size, local population size, remoteness, natural attractiveness, and national income.

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