Marine protected areas (MPAs) are gaining popularity to conserve marine biodiversity and to ensure a sustainable use of marine resources. This study elaborates on how to evaluate the economic benefits and costs of MPAs while providing examples and reviewing different economic methods. Key challenges, such as comparing non-market and markets benefits and quantifying the value of non-protected areas versus MPAs, are identified.
This factsheet, a product of the partnership of WWF UK and Sky Ocean Rescue (UK SEAS Project), provides answers to the question: "What are the key benefits the marine environment provides to people, and what are the risks and opportunities?" related to North Devon, United Kingdom. This communication tool gives a brief explaination of how the concept of Ecosystem Services and how this applies to the situation in North Devon. The UK SEAS Project developed several other reports and communications tools that can be find via the link below.
Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years.
Recent calls for ocean planning envision informed management of social and ecological systems to sustain delivery of ecosystem services to people. However, until now, no coastal and marine planning process has applied an ecosystem-services framework to understand how human activities affect the flow of benefits, to create scenarios, and to design a management plan.
Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) is a free and open-source software suite to inform and improve natural resource management and investment decisions. InVEST quantifies, maps, and values the goods and services from nature that contribute to sustaining and fulfilling human life.
This online article explains the 'language' of Ecosystem Services: "The value of ecosystems and the associated services they provide is receiving growing attention both in the public and decision-making arena. The language of Ecosystem Services essentially translates the complexity of ecological processes and functions into descriptors that define the socio-economic-ecological link.
Infographic on the economic valuation of the Sargasso sea by Pendleton 2015. The infograpghic shows the financial potential of a healthy Sargasso sea and can be used in advocacy towards MPA establishment in the Sargasso Sea.
This report provides a variety of measures of the Sargasso Sea’s economic value and impact, especially net and gross revenues associated with ecosystem services supported by the sea. Measures of net revenues capture the net benefit of a resource to society. Gross revenues capture important measures of economic activity and impact. Gross revenues support local taxes, income, and jobs.
This study focuses on how the economic value of marine ecosystem services to people and communities is expected to change with the expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs). The report makes a clear case that shows that all possible scenarios for ocean expansion are of economical interest. Costs outweigh benefits varying from 3:1 to 20:1, making a clear economic case for global MPA expansion. This document can be used in advocacy for making the econimic case of MPAs either within as beyond areas with national jurisdiction.
How often do people visit the world’s protected areas (PAs)? Despite PAs covering one-eighth of the land and being a major focus of nature-based recreation and tourism, we don’t know. To address this, we compiled a globally-representative database of visits to PAs and built region-specific models predicting visit rates from PA size, local population size, remoteness, natural attractiveness, and national income.