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management effectiveness

Partial protection disallowing trawling has conservation benefits in a subtropical marine park

Generally, multiple-use marine protected areas (MPAs) allow exploitation activities that are considered acceptable. However, Partially Protected Areas (PPAs) are not always effective in relation to management objectives and biotic responses vary. This study used remote under water video methods to compare fish and invertebrate assemblages between two PPA types, one allowing trawling and the other not, in the subtropical Solitary Islands Marine Park in Australia.

Video: Malpelo Island Hope Spot Expedition

The Mission Blue Expedition visited the Malpelo Island Hope Spot located 310 miles off the coast of Colombia. In this best best practice story, Sandra Bussedo of the Malpelo Foundation and other experts share story of this Marine Protected Area (MPA), how they protect its biodiversity and the challenges they face. The team also works on improving the region's network of MPAs and shares research results to be able to better protect hammerhead sharks, silky sharks and other migratory shark species in the East Pacific. 

Protecting our ocean: Europe's challenges to meet the 2020 deadlines

This report evaluates the effectiveness of the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Europe. In the final year before the 2020 deadline of the Aichi Target, this study indicates that the most critical elements of the European MPAs are not effective and are failing the contintent's marine biodiversity. Today, only 1.8% of the European Union's seas are MPAs with management plans, although 12,4% of these waters are designated for protection. Moreover, only part of this 1,8% is managed and monitored effectively. 

Sharks, rays and marine protected areas: A critical evaluation of current perspectives

Although Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly advocated for the protection of sharks and rays, which species can benefit from MPAs remains largely unclear and many recently created large MPAs have vague objectives and potentially different notions of 'success'. Therefore, this article critically evaluates perspectives on how MPAs can contribute to shark and ray conservation. It is argued that a stronger focus on achieving social outcomes in the establishment and management of MPAs can benefit the protection of sharks and rays.

IUCN Global Standard for Marine Protected Areas

In this video, IUCN urges for the effective design and management  of MPAs at a global level. To support governments, NGOs, MPA managers and other people striving for this, IUCN developed the IUCN Global Standard for Marine Protected Areas; a synthesis of the IUCN Green List Standard for Protected and Conserved Areas, together with current relevant policies taken from approved IUCN Resolutions and guidance documents.

A Practical Guide to the Effective Design and Management of MPAs for Sharks and Rays

This guide provides science-based advice on developing and maintaining MPAs for sharks and rays, which are increasingly threatened with extinction. Supported by examples of MPAs around the world, the clear guidelines help to maximize the impact of spatial protection by outlining how to ensure the areas are well designed, implemented, managed and enforced for the long term. The guide builds on the most comprehensive global analysis to date of the effectiveness of shark-focused MPAs, as well as a review of known information on the movement of sharks. 

Fact sheet - Assessment of Portuguese Marine Protected Areas

The WWF report “MPA X-ray – an assessment of Portuguese MPAs”, considers the type of protection, distribution and area of the MPAs in Portugal as well as their governance model. The report is supported by the Oceano Azul Foundation and the Oceanário de Lisboa. The report focuses on national, regional and local MPAs (only nationally designated) and clarifies some of the more relevant and urgent questions about the MPAs. The report also encourages the Portuguese Government and the institutions responsible for the implementation of more efficient MPAs to ensure the ocean’s sustainability.