This WWF report analyses the current marine protection area in the Mediterranean Sea, an area with a very rich diversity of marine and coastal ecosystems, a year before the CBD Aichi Target 11 deadline. Throughout the years, unsustainable use of marine resources, pollution and other threats from human activities have caused a dramatic decrease of marine species, as well as the destruction of important habitats.
Human activities cause major threats to marine biodiversity, which has led to the target of protecting at least 10% of the oceans with area-based conservation measures, like marine protected areas (MPAs). Achieving such a global target asks for a profound understanding of how potentially harmful human activities are distributed, as well as their expected impacts. An approach that is being increasingly used to better understand human impact on species and ecosystems is cumulative impact mapping, allowing to identify the possible effects of economic sectors.
This study focuses on how the economic value of marine ecosystem services to people and communities is expected to change with the expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs). The report makes a clear case that shows that all possible scenarios for ocean expansion are of economical interest. Costs outweigh benefits varying from 3:1 to 20:1, making a clear economic case for global MPA expansion. This document can be used in advocacy for making the econimic case of MPAs either within as beyond areas with national jurisdiction.